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Peanuts are an annual legume native to South America. It is cultivated in the USA, China, India and other countries around the globe. You can grow peanuts in the Russian climate. When growing, it is important to follow the planting technology and provide good care.
Peanut cultivation technology
Peanuts are a plant with a height of 25 - 70 cm. The root is branchy, penetrates to a depth of 1.5 m. In the girth, the root system takes up to 1.5 m. Therefore, the plant is resistant to drought. In nature, it prefers a humid and warm climate.
Peanuts produce yellow-orange flowers. The flowering period lasts only 12 hours. After pollination, the ovary descends to the ground. About 2000 flowers appear on one plant. The number of fruits ranges from 30 to 80. Peanuts ripen in the ground, therefore they are called peanuts. Is the growing season 120 to 160 days? depending on the variety.
Features of agricultural technology for growing peanuts:
- sunny place, no shady areas;
- the best temperature regime is from +20 to +27 ° С;
- constant circulation of air masses;
- black earth or neutral soil;
- increased content of magnesium, calcium and humus in the soil;
- low soil salinity;
- temperature regime for seeds and seedlings;
- high soil moisture when flowers and ovaries appear;
- lack of stagnation of water in the ground;
- hilling plants.
How to plant peanuts in the garden
To grow peanuts in the country, it is important to prepare the site and seeds for planting. It is grown outdoors only in the southern regions. Be sure to comply with the terms of the work.
Peanut seeds germinate only in warm soil. The minimum temperature is from +12 to +15 ° С. The best mode is from +25 to +30 ° С. Spring frosts are detrimental to the plant. Therefore, it is important to choose a period when the soil warms up well and the cold passes.
Planting of peanuts begins in May or early June. In the forest-steppe zone, work is postponed to the second decade of May. When choosing dates, they are guided by the weather forecast. If frost is coming, then it is better to postpone planting. If the seeds have already been planted and a cold snap is expected, then at night the beds are covered with agrofibre or film.
Selection and preparation of the landing site
Before you start growing peanuts, it is important to properly prepare the site. The plant grows well even on poor soils. When a crop is grown, the soil is saturated with nitrogen. Therefore, peanuts are used to enrich depleted soil.
The best option is soil rich in humus and minerals. River sand and fertilizers are added to the clay soil. If the soil is sandy, then its composition is improved with clay and compost. Peanuts do not tolerate salty or acidic soil. In such cases, liming is carried out.
Advice! Peanuts are planted after cabbage, tomatoes, cucumbers and potatoes.
Observance of crop rotation will help to avoid diseases. Growing peanuts after beans, legumes, peas and other legumes is not recommended. If you break this rule, there is a high risk of root rot.
Site preparation begins in the fall. The soil is dug up and fertilized with humus. For 1 sq. m is enough 1 - 3 kg. In the spring, the beds are loosened with a pitchfork. In dry form, 40 g of Nitrofoski are added per 1 sq. m.
Preparing peanut seeds for planting
Before planting, the seeds are processed. This will improve their germination and destroy pathogenic bacteria. Planting material is best purchased at gardening stores. For the middle lane, the varieties Adyg, Bayan, Klinsky, Valencia, Stepnyak are suitable.
Only raw beans are used for cultivation. If the nuts have been cooked, they will not be able to germinate. The seeds are assessed visually: they should have a red skin. It is recommended to purchase inshell peanuts and carefully remove them before growing. Also, there should be no traces of mold, rotting, cracks on the surface. The best shoots are produced by large nuts.
The procedure for preparing peanuts for growing:
- In order for the peanuts to sprout, they are soaked for 5 hours in warm water. It is recommended to add a growth stimulant. Treatment in a solution of potassium permanganate will help to avoid the appearance of diseases.
- The liquid is drained.
- A damp cotton cloth is placed in a large basin.
- Peanuts are laid out on top.
- Cover the seeds with another piece of damp cloth.
- After a day, the halves of the nuts open and sprouts appear.
If the seeds do not germinate 3 days after treatment, then they are not used for planting. If the beans have sprouted, they can be immediately planted in the ground.
How to plant peanuts outdoors
The peanuts are planted in furrows 10 cm deep.If you plan to grow several rows, then make a gap of 40 cm.It is allowed to plant seeds according to the scheme 60x60 cm.
- Furrows are watered with warm water.
- The beans are placed in the furrows. Leave at least 30 cm between the plants.
- The seeds are sprinkled with a layer of earth 8 cm thick.
- Seedlings will appear in 14 - 20 days.
Seeds should be protected from birds. To do this, use a net or a scarecrow. Until shoots appear, cover the peanuts with a non-woven cloth.
How to grow peanuts in the garden
Planting and growing peanuts correctly will ensure a high yield. Caring for plants includes weeding the beds, applying moisture and fertilizers, hilling bushes.
Weeding and loosening
The peanut bed is weeded regularly. Otherwise, the weeds will grow and drown out the plantings. Loosening of the soil is also carried out. This stage is especially important during the flowering period. The ovaries are formed in the ground. If the soil is too dense, then the flowers will not be able to penetrate deeply and will die. Loosening is convenient to combine with weeding.
Watering and feeding
Peanuts prefer moist soil. To better absorb water, the soil is loosened after watering. In the beds, the soil does not dry out and the formation of a crust is not allowed. For irrigation, use warm, settled water.
When flowering, peanuts are watered 1 - 2 times a week. It is best to choose morning or evening hours when there is no direct sun exposure. Additionally, the plants are sprayed. When choosing an irrigation scheme, precipitation in the region is taken into account. In a drought, plantings are watered by sprinkling. Water is poured onto the roots and leaves, it is brought into the furrows between the rows.
Advice! If the rains began when the beans were ripening, then the beds are covered with polyethylene.
It is enough to feed peanuts 2-3 times per season. The first treatment is carried out when the seedlings reach 10 cm in height. For processing, a solution is prepared containing 20 g of ammonium nitrate, 50 g of potassium sulfate and 60 g of superphosphate per 10 l of water. In the middle of the years, only potash and phosphorus fertilizers are applied.
Hilling is a mandatory step in peanut care. It is carried out when the ovaries begin to sink to the ground. The roots of the plant are spud with loose and moist soil. An alternative is to sprinkle a substrate of humus, sand or sawdust on top.
Features of growing peanuts in different regions
Growing peanuts in central Russia or Siberia has its own nuances. In general, agricultural technology is the same for all regions. When planting and nursing, take into account the local climate.
Growing peanuts in the Moscow region
For growing peanuts in the Moscow region in the open field, the timing of planting is correctly selected. Waiting for the middle or end of May, when the spring frosts pass. Sand and compost are preliminarily introduced into the soil. After planting, the beds are covered with foil. The rest of the peanuts are provided with standard care: watering, feeding, hilling.
Growing peanuts in Siberia
For the successful cultivation of peanuts in Siberia, it is important to prepare the beds. The soil is dug up or fertilized. If recurrent frosts often occur in the region, then the seeds are planted in a greenhouse or greenhouse. It is most convenient to place the bushes in a checkerboard pattern.
If the weather conditions do not allow growing peanuts in the beds, then it is better to plant peanuts at home. Large plastic containers are chosen for him, where drainage holes are made. Plants are kept on the south side. The soil is regularly moistened.
Diseases and pests
During cultivation, peanuts can be seriously affected by fungal diseases. They usually develop in rainy weather. To save the landing, it is important to detect warning signs in time.
The following diseases are most dangerous for peanuts:
- Powdery mildew. The lesion has the appearance of a whitish bloom that appears on the leaves. Gradually, the spots grow, and the foliage turns yellow and dries. Powdery mildew also covers the stems and ovaries.
- Spotting. The disease is diagnosed by white spots of brown color on the leaves of peanuts. Gradually, the tissues inside the lesion die off and holes form.
- Black spot. Develops in high humidity. Black spots up to 15 mm in size are formed along the edges of the leaves. As a result, the foliage dies off.
- Fusarium wilting. The disease leads to yellowing of the shoots, while the root system rots. The plant dies before harvesting.
To avoid diseases, agricultural techniques are followed when growing peanuts. It is important to process the seeds before planting, observe crop rotation, and standardize watering. When signs of illness appear, the bushes are sprayed with a solution of the drug Quadris, Skor or Topaz.
Peanuts attract aphids, caterpillars, thrips and other pests. A mixture of tobacco dust and wood ash is used against them. The most dangerous for the plant is the wireworm, which gnaws the shell of the fruit and eats nuts. To combat the wireworm, traps are set with bait in the form of carrots and potatoes.
Advice! Prevention against pests - digging up the soil in the fall and treating the beds with insecticides in the spring.
The peanuts are harvested before the onset of cold weather. When the nuts are frozen, they lose their taste and become unusable. When the leaves of the plant begin to turn yellow, dig out several fruits. If the seeds are easy to clean, then they start harvesting.
Usually, the crop is harvested when the temperature settles at +10 ° C. A dry day is chosen for work. The plants are dug up with a pitchfork or other garden tool.
The beans are collected in bunches and hung with the roots down. The peanuts are kept in a dry, ventilated area. These nuts ripen well and contain a maximum of nutrients.
After 2 weeks, the fruits are cut off and washed with running water. Then the peanuts are dried in the heat. As a result, the shell becomes brittle and the nuts acquire a flavor. The harvested crop is kept in a dry and warm room. The beans are protected from direct sunlight and high humidity.
Experienced gardening tips
Porshneva Elena Ivanovna, 34 years old, Essentuki
I have been fond of gardening for many years. I chose various exotic plants for growing in the store. Among them were peanuts of Dutch selection. I planted him in a pot of fertile soil. Of the four seeds, only two emerged. The seedlings grew rapidly. A month later, flowers appeared and sank into the ground. Therefore, it is imperative to loosen it so that the nuts can ripen. The growing process is very interesting to watch. Each plant produced about 30 nuts.
Sokolov Vladimir Alexandrovich, 56 years old, Kursk
I have been growing peanuts for the third year already. Although it is a southern plant, it has proven to be easy to care for. I definitely prepare the soil in the fall: I dig it up and fertilize it with compost. In the spring I wait for the ground to warm up. I plant the seeds only after loosening. Be sure to water the beds to speed up the emergence of seedlings. Bushes need to be spud like potatoes. During the entire cultivation period, I did not notice any signs of disease. Pests also bypass plants.
Even a novice gardener can grow peanuts. The plant is provided with certain conditions: fertile soil, processing of planting material, care for seedlings. The cultivation of peanuts in different regions has its own characteristics. To obtain a good harvest, they observe the technology and take into account the experience of other gardeners.